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Basic Components of Refrigeration System

Contrary to popular belief, refrigeration systems are not limited to industrial factories. These systems are also a part of ordinary households as a subsystem of HVAC. Do you notice every time you step into a building and get relief from the sweltering heat? It is the refrigeration system you have to be thankful for.

Unlike other systems in HVAC, the refrigeration system is simple. Here is a list of basic components included in it.

Basic Components Of Refrigeration System:

When it comes to the major components, there are 4 of them in a refrigeration system.

  • Compressor
  • Evaporator
  • Condenser
  • The expansion valve (Thermostatic expansion valve)

Other than these, there are some other components that make up the complete system

  • Refrigerant (working fluid in the refrigeration cycle)
  • Filters
  • Drain pipes
  • Refrigerant pipes (conduits to carry refrgerent)
  • Evaporator fan
  • Condenser fan
  • Controls (to control the process)
  • Control cables
  • Electrical cables

The 4 Major Components Of Refrigeration System:


You should keep in mind about refrigerants is that they can change their physical state. In other words, depending on the situation, it will be liquid or gas. The liquid refrigerant enters the evaporator at low pressure with a low temperature. A fan fixed in the place would force the air across the evaporator’s fins to cool down the present air to absorb heat. This heat is then transferred to the heat pump with the help of liquid refrigerant. At this point, the refrigerant would become gas. The suction line will then transfer it over to the compressor.


At this point, the low-pressure vapor is present in the suction line from the evaporator.  Now, it needs something to pull it out from the line. That is the job of the compressor. Once the process is complete, the temperature and pressure will start to rise. Once that task is complete, the vapor will  into the discharge line.


Now that the refrigerant is in gas, it would change into the liquid again in the condenser. To achieve this result, the condenser will draw the heat from the refrigerant. This will lower its temperature, allowing it to become liquid again. The condensation process will continue until the refrigerant retains a little fraction of heat. At that point, it would go to expansion valve for next step.

The expansion valve (Thermostatic expansion valve)

The expansion valve is supposed to generate a pressure drop after refrigerant exits condenser. After the refrigerant is condensed in the condenser, it goes to expansion valve. In there, refrigerant is exposed to the dropped pressure. The pressure drop would decrease the temperature of the refrigerant. At that, the refrigerant would be pumped to the evaporator to continue the cycle.

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